Kalat is a historical town of Balochistan province of Pakistan. It is the capital of Kalat District and is known locally as Kalat-e Baluch. Although not a big town now but Kalat has a rich history and is in a scenic terain of Balouchistan.
This city was once known as Kilat, was the capital of the Kalat Khanate.
People of this city are mostly Muslim with a Hindu population of two percent. In addition, there are some Hindu Hindkowan merchants who have settled in this city. As such, there is a Hindu mandir below citadel of the city, dedicated to the Kali this mandir dates to the pre-Islamic era of South Asia.
The state of Kalat was founded in 1638. The territories controlled by the state fluctuated over the centuries but eventually were established by treaties with the British Agent Robert Sandeman in the late 19th century. Parts of the state to the north and northeast were leased or ceded to form the province of British Baluchistan which later gained the status of a Chief Commissioners province.
On 31 March 1948, the state acceded to Pakistan and went on to form the Baluchistan States Union on 3 October 1952 with three neighbouring states. The state of Kalat ceased to exist on 14 October 1955 when the province of West Pakistan was formed.
The rulers of Kalat held the title of Wali originally but in 1739 also took the title (Begler Begi) Khan usually shortened to Khan. The last Khan of Kalat had the privilege of being the President of the Council of Rulers for the Baluchistan States Union.
The origins of the Brahui speaking tribes are uncertain, but their language indicates they are a Northern Dravidian people whose language has been modified by residence in the proximity of largely Iranian peoples, most notably the Baloch with whom the Brahui have been greatly mixed. The Brahui people had already long been resident in the Kalat area when the Balochi speaking tribes arrived from the west.
The Balochis established a large kingdom in the 15th century, but it soon declined and the region fell to Afghan and Iranian invaders. The Brahui Khans of Kalat were dominant from the 16th century onwards until the arrival of the British in the 19th century. A treaty was signed in 1876 to make Kalat part of the British Empire. In 1947, Kalat became part of Pakistan when the British withdrew. The last Khan of Kalat was formally removed from power in 1955, but the title is still claimed by his descendants.